Due 1/18/2020: Pediatric Nursing Immunization, 800 Words
- Meningitis can be a severe infection which causes inflammation in the membranes that surround the spinal cord and brain. Meningitis can be prevented by vaccination. Meningitis is protected by many vaccines including meningococcal serogogroup B (MenB), meningococcal MCV4 and the pneumococcal CCV13. These vaccines prevent hospitalization and serious illness from meningitis. All children between the ages of 11-12, and a booster at 16 years old should be vaccinated. Vaccination is also recommended for those at high-risk of contracting meningitis. This includes people with medical conditions, or who travel to regions with a higher risk. Meningococcal Serogroup B and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines can either be administered intramuscularly, or subcutaneously.
- The vaccine should not be administered to children who are immunosuppressed, or those with acute illness. These conditions may weaken the immunity system of the child and increase their vulnerability to negative effects. The vaccine can cause complications like fever or seizures if it is administered during a severe illness. The vaccine’s effectiveness can be reduced as well, since the immune system might not produce enough of a response. In a Journal of Pediatrics evidence-based article, it is recommended that immunosuppressed patients receive age-appropriate shots but will need to get revaccinated after their immune system has recovered.
- Three vaccines that are given subcutaneously include the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, varicella vaccine, and yellow fever vaccine. These vaccines are given subcutaneously because there is less risk that they will cause an adverse reaction. Incorrect administration of a vaccination can affect its efficacy. Subcutaneous administration of an intramuscularly administered vaccine may result in less absorption, and a lower immune response. The benefits of giving a vaccine subcutaneously or intramuscularly depend on the vaccine and the individual’s age and medical history.
- Some allergies that would contraindicate the administration of a vaccine include anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or to a vaccine component, severe allergic reaction to gelatin or neomycin, and severe allergy to baker’s yeast. Anaphylactic reactions are rare. For most vaccines, there is less than 1 case in a million doses. In an evidence-based clinical practice article, published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, it is recommended that those with severe reactions to vaccines should consult an allergist for advice.