Response to discussion 2 | Nursing homework help
The lens of the eyes becomes cloudy, which results in reduced vision. Risk factors include smoking, exposure to ultraviolet light, diabetes, and use of steroids. Cataracts can be detected by an eye exam using visual acuity or ophthalmoscopic tests. Corrective lenses and surgery are available as treatment options.
Glaucoma, an optic-nerve disease that can affect peripheral vision and lead to blindness, is a condition that causes damage to the peripheral nerve. Glaucoma is caused by an increase in intraocular tension due to excessive production of eye fluid or poor drainage away from eyecup tissues. The screening for glaucoma includes tonometry and a specialized imaging device such as an optical coherence Tomography (OCT) to measure intraocular fluid pressure. Treatment may include medications, such as oral or eyedrops to reduce IOP or laser therapy to stimulate drainage.
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disease that leads to hyperglycemia. This occurs due to an impaired insulin action or secretion within the cells. The resultant disruptions to metabolism can affect all parts of the body, including vision changes like diabetic retinopathy. DM screening should include yearly dilated fundus exams where signs of DR including bleeding/exudates in retina are noted as well treatments tailored according to findings – often involving laser photocoagulation for more serious cases combined with general treatment for DM itself such as blood sugar control via diet/lifestyle modifications & possible medications if needed.