Pathophysiology case study | Nursing homework help.
This patient presents with symptoms such as shortness in breath, a cough that produces thick, green sputum and fevers. The patient’s auscultation shows hyper-resonance with coarse rales in all lung areas. CXR imaging shows flattened diaphragms and an increased diameter of the AP. This suggests a respiratory disease that affects the cardiovascular system.
COPD exacerbation could be the cause of these symptoms. Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), a lung condition that causes difficulty breathing, is the chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Air sacs lose their flexibility and walls between air sacs are damaged. This leads to larger air spaces. The decreased oxygen exchange surface and the reduced airflow caused by these changes lead to chronic coughing, production of sputum, and shortness breath. COPD is characterized by increased inflammation as well as thick, green, sputum.
Genetic and environmental variables can have an impact on physiological function. In this case, the patient’s racial/ethnic background may have contributed to the development of COPD. African Americans have a higher risk of COPD and are diagnosed earlier than whites who are non-Hispanic. COPD is primarily caused by smoking. Some studies have suggested that African Americans are more vulnerable to its harmful effects due to their differences in metabolism and lung function.
Respiratory and cardiovascular systems interact, so changes to one can impact the other. The respiratory disease that affected the patient caused an increase in heart rate, and increased work of breathing. This increased effort of breathing could lead to increased oxygen consumption, leading to tachycardia or increased blood-pressure. Constriction of airways can be caused by increased inflammation or sputum production. This will increase resistance to airflow, and decrease lung function.
Understanding the respiratory and cardiovascular systems are critical to the diagnosis and treatment for many diseases. In this case, the patient’s symptoms suggest a respiratory illness affecting the cardiovascular system. It is likely that the pathophysiology process which led to these symptoms was a COPD acute exacerbation. Additionally, the patient’s racial/ethnic background may have contributed to the development of COPD. Both the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are closely interrelated, so changes to one can have an impact on the other. For APRNs, it is vital to understand these systems in detail and how they interact to ensure optimal patient care.