Betty Neuman’s Theory of Systems is a comprehensive theory that considers a person as a dynamic system that constantly interacts with various internal and external stressors. The Neuman Systems Model makes the assumption that stressors are classified into intrapersonal, interpersonal and extrapersonal. Interpersonal stressors are stressors that come from outside sources such as social or family interactions. Intrapersonal stresses refer to the stressors within, like physiological and psychological stressors. Extrapersonal stressors relate to external factors, like economic and political stresses.
Neuman Systems Model will be used to structure the care provided by an advanced-practice nurse for Mr. Reynolds. In addition to his current and past medical conditions, the assessment will include information on medications, surgery, and any medication he is currently taking. In addition, she would ask about the patient’s personal background, which includes his family and work history. Diagnoses would be made based on intrapersonal, interpersonal and extrapersonal stressors. In the planning phase, Mr. Reynolds would identify appropriate interventions to help him cope with stressors. Interventions would aim to promote his wellness and reduce his anxiety while improving his health.
Two specific examples of interventions that could be included in Mr. Reynolds’ care plan are as follows:
- Encouragement of social support. As Mr. Reynolds has been separated from both his wife and his family for some time, he could be feeling social isolation. Nurses can help Mr. Reynolds connect with others, participate in support groups or group activities. This would allow him to build new relationships with others and lessen his isolation.
- Providing mental support: Because Mr. Reynolds suffers from depression and schizophrenia in the past, his nurse may include interventions to reduce anxiety and improve his health. She can teach him relaxation or cognitive-behavioral therapies. She could work alongside the mental health team in order to monitor and manage his symptoms, as well as his medication.
References: Neuman, B. (1995). Neuman system model, 2nd edition. Appleton & Lange. Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2018). The third edition of Philosophy and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.