Different people may hold different beliefs about the behavior of individuals when confronted with specific incentives and disincentives. It could be anything from assuming that people always act rationally to believing they only consider their own interests. These beliefs will then influence which policies to pursue and how these are implemented.
It is important to recognize the role that politics has in influencing these decisions, but it’s also vital to ensure you have proper data backing up your claims. Without the right data, it is difficult to know if the proposed strategies will actually produce positive results.