Head-to-toe assessment | Nursing homework help
Introduction Head-to-toe assessment is a comprehensive examination that enables a nurse to collect essential information regarding a patient’s health status. It involves assessing each body system for normal and abnormal findings and determining the client’s overall health status. The paper discusses John Smith as a hypothetical case who is suffering from two system issues. The template for head-totoe assessment will allow a thorough review of every system and its normal findings as well as abnormal ones. This paper also includes information about how to assess a system which cannot be inspected due to lack equipment. Normal laboratory findings for the client’s age, age-specific risk reduction health screening, and immunizations will also be analyzed. There will also be a discussion of two possible differential diagnoses based on abnormal laboratory findings. This is followed by an analysis of pharmacological therapies, client and age appropriate evidence-based practices for health promotion, and then a plan to care.
System to be Assessed John Smith is undergoing a complete assessment from head-totoe, which includes:
- The Integumentary Systems
- Musculoskeletal system
- Gastrointestinal System
- Cardiovascular System
- Respiratory System
- Nervous System
The Detailed Analysis of Every System, with Abnormal and Normal Findings
- Integumentary Systems The assessment of the intercellular system includes examining skin color, temperature and turgor. Moisture content, lesions, and turgor are also examined. John Smith’s skin appeared to be intact and free of visible lesions. The skin appeared pink, dry and warm with good turgor.
- Musculoskeletal System Assessment of the musculoskeletal system involves inspecting the patient’s posture and gait and palpating muscles and joints. John Smith complained of pain in his joints on the right side. The leg was not deformed or swollen, but the palpation revealed tenderness.
- Anus, rectum, abdominal palpation, and auscultation of bowel sound are all part of the assessment. John Smith’s abdomen felt soft and not tender when palpated. An examination of the anus, rectum and abdomen revealed no abnormalities.
- Heart Sounds, Pulse Palpation, and Edema Inspection are all part of assessing the cardiovascular system. John Smith was assessed and found to have a heart rate that is 80 beats per minutes, without any murmurs. The pulse was felt in both extremities and the legs were not edematous.
- The Respiratory system assessment involves checking the chest and listening to breath sounds. It also includes measuring the oxygen saturation. During the assessment, John Smith’s oxygen saturation was 97%, and there were no abnormal breath sounds. The chest appeared symmetrical and had good extension.
- The nervous system assessment includes a mental state, motor and sensory function, as well as cranial nerves. John Smith showed good mental alertness and orientation, with intact cranial nervous system. The motor and sensory functions of John Smith were normal.
Alternative Methods of Assessment for System Without Equipment When equipment is unavailable to evaluate a system, alternative methods can be used. The nurse could use tactile-fremitus if there is no stethoscope to measure lung sounds. The nurse places the palm of their hand on the patient’s chest and asks the patient to say “99.” The vibrations felt on the chest indicate the presence of lung sounds.
Normal Laboratory Findings for Client Age Normal laboratory findings for John Smith’s age, which is 45 years, include:
- Blood glucose levels