- If the common bile duct is obstructed by a gallstone, an additional procedure called an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be performed. ERCP uses an endoscope to inspect the ducts in the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. A small camera with light is attached to the endoscope, which allows doctors to view inside the patient’s body. Special instruments can be used by the doctor to remove the gallstones and clear the obstruction.
Before discharge, the nurse must provide both written and oral instructions to patients.
- Pain Management: Describe how to use pain medications as prescribed. Also, explain what you should do if your pain does not go away. Stress the importance of reporting adverse reactions to pain medication.
- Incision care: Explain to the patient how they should care for their surgical incisions. For example, keep the area dry, change dressings if necessary, and look for any signs of infection.
- Activity restrictions: Explain the restrictions that you have on your activities, including lifting heavy objects or driving.
- Discuss any restrictions on diet or modifications to the diet. For example, a patient may be told that they should avoid greasy or fatty foods or consume a diet low in fat. Also, explain when they can return to a regular diet.
- How to make an appointment and what the patient can expect during their next visit.
- Acute pancreatitis is characterized by markedly increased levels of amylase or lipase in the serum. When the pancreas becomes inflamed, or is damaged, digestive enzymes like lipase and amylase leak into the bloodstream. These elevated enzyme levels indicate pancreatic damage and inflammation.
Pale, bulky stool is caused by the absence of pancreatics enzymes that aid digestion and absorption. Dark tea colored urine can be caused by bilirubin. Bilirubin is a waste that normally is excreted through bile. The obstruction of the common pancreatic duct may cause the bilirubin in the blood to build up and then be excreted into the urine.
Based on the Criteria for Predicting the Severity of Pancreatitis, Mr. Harrison’s mortality risk is intermediate. The criteria take into account several factors, including age, comorbidities, and laboratory values, to predict the severity of pancreatitis and the patient’s risk of mortality.
If hypocalcemia is suspected, the nurse must implement these interventions:
- Take calcium as prescribed.
- Check for the signs and symptoms associated with hypocalcemia. These include tetany (twitching), numbness, tingling, or cramping in your extremities.
- Hypocalcemia may occur along with hypomagnesemia.
- Inform the patient, and the family members of the patient about the potential negative effects and the importance and necessity of taking calcium and magnesium supplements.