Preeclampsia is a pregnancy condition that causes high blood pressure. It is also characterized with protein in the urine. It is still not known the exact cause of eclampsia, but abnormal blood vessel changes, such as vasospasm, and endothelial malfunction, are believed to contribute to it. This leads to an inadequate blood supply and organ damage.
During pregnancy the placenta secretes a substance known as soluble fmslike tyrosine kinase-1(sFlt-1), that inhibits production of vascular-endothelial-growth factor (VEGF). VEGF, a blood vessel-growth and function protein, is released by the placenta during pregnancy. Reduced VEGF levels and increased sFlt-1 cause endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, which can affect blood vessels in all parts of the body including the brain.
Blood-brain Barrier damage is caused when the blood vessels function changes, including increased permeability and vasospasm, causing the normal protection of the brain against harmful substances. The damage causes inflammatory mediators such as cytokines to enter the brain and trigger seizures.
Moreover, abnormal changes to blood vessels may lead to a reduction in the blood supply to the head, increasing the likelihood of seizures. Eclampsia-related seizures can damage the brain and cause long-term neurodegenerative deficits.
Eclampsia, as a pregnancy-related complication, can cause serious problems for mother and child. It is still not known how eclampsia develops. However, it may be caused by abnormal blood vessel changes, such as vasospasm or endothelial malfunction, which can lead to an inadequate blood supply and organ damage, like brain injury. It is important to treat preeclampsia as soon as possible in order to avoid complications such eclampsia.