Tuberculosis is the chosen infectious and/or communicable disease. TB is a bacterial illness caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily attacks the lungs. However, it can affect other organs. Droplets are spread when an individual infected coughs or is sneezed. It is estimated, in terms of epidemiology that approximately 10,000,000 new cases occur each year worldwide. Each year it causes roughly 1.5 million deaths.
Despite a decline in TB cases across many countries, certain regions, including Africa, India and Southeast Asia are still disproportionately affected by the disease due to overcrowding. TB is more common in those who are poor or have HIV/AIDS due to weakened immunity systems. Public health initiatives are taking steps to combat the problem. These include increased awareness of preventative measures and free vaccinations provided for populations that have a high infection risk.