Insulin should be used correctly. Pathophysiology is complicated and includes multiple physiological processes.
In type 1 diabetes, which accounts for about 5-10% of cases, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. Hyperglycemia occurs when glucose is unable to enter cells. In type 2 diabetes, which accounts for about 90-95% of cases, the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, or the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to meet the body’s needs.
Diabetes leads to chronic hyperglycemia, which can cause a number of complications. These include damage to the blood vessels, organs and nerves. These damages can result in a wide range of medical problems including heart disease, strokes, kidney diseases, nerve damage and vision loss.
History has shown that the knowledge and technologies available have varied over time. Before the 1921 discovery of insulin, diabetes could only be treated with a low-carbohydrate, often ineffective diet. This led to severe malnutrition. The discovery of insulin made diabetes more manageable, yet complications and mortality rates were still high. This was due to a lack of tools for monitoring and treatment of long-term diabetic complications. New medications, devices for monitoring, and other interventions, developed through advances in research and technology, have helped to manage diabetes and lower the risks of complications.
The Roy Adaptation Model and Neuman System Model are nursing conceptual models that can help to understand diabetes stressors, adaptation, and the effects of the disease. According to Roy Adaptation Model individuals adjust to stressors by using four modes of adaptation: physiological, role function and interdependence. The four modes of stress that diabetes can cause include managing blood sugar levels, dealing with emotional effects of the illness, adapting new roles, and responsibilities relating to diabetes management. Neuman Systems Model sees individuals as systems of interconnected parts that include physiological, psychosocial, spiritual, and sociocultural components. Diabetes may disrupt these systems and lead to stressors. These include managing diabetes’ physical and psychological symptoms, adapting to the social and cultural impact, as well as maintaining emotional and mental health.
Conclusion: The pathophysiology is complex and involves a variety of physiological processes that can cause complications. The advances in technology and medical research can explain the variations in results over time. To understand adaptations to living with diabetes, and the stresses that accompany it, nursing conceptual models provide a framework.