Part 1: Pharmacology – Ubrelvy
Ubrelvy is a calcitonin-related peptide receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acute migraines with or without aura. This drug is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating migraines. Ubrelvy is a drug that blocks the CGRP neuropeptide, a substance involved in the migraine’s pathogenesis. Orally, this drug can be consumed in tablet form. It is recommended that you take 50mg or 100mg, depending on how severe your migraines are.
Ubrelvy’s pharmacokinetics is marked by rapid absorption. A peak concentration can be reached within 1,5 to 2 hours of oral administration. The drug’s bioavailability ranges from 9 to 16% which is considered low. The drug’s metabolism is dominated by CYP3A4; it then excretes in feces or urine. It is excreted within 24 hours. The drug has a half-life between 5 and 7 hours.
Ubrelvy was shown to have a positive effect on migraines. The drug showed a significant improvement in migraine symptoms and pain relief compared to placebos, including photophobia, nausea, and phonophobia. In addition, the drug has been found to be well tolerated with only a few reported adverse reactions. Nausea, dry mouth, and somnolence were the most frequent adverse reactions.
Ubrelvy, a recently approved medication for acute migraines in adults is the best way to summarize this drug. The drug works by inhibiting the activity of CGRP which plays a role in migraine pathogenesis. This drug is metabolized primarily through CYP3A4 and excreted mainly in urine and feces. This drug relieves migraine symptoms and pain, is safe, and generally well tolerated.
- Tablets of Ubrelvy, also known as ubrogepant. [prescribing information]. Allergan USA, Inc., ; 2020.
- Dodick DW, Lipton RB, Ailani J, et al. Ubrogepant as a treatment for migraine. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(23):2230-2241.
Part 2: Physiology – Case Study
- Transmission of tuberculosis occurs via the airborne route. When a person who has active pulmonary TB coughs or sneezes and releases droplets containing the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the TB is transmitted. Transmission can occur by consuming contaminated dairy products or milk. The pathophysiology of TB involves the invasion of M. tuberculosis into the host’s body, which then multiplies and spreads to other parts of the body, primarily the lungs. Granulomas are immune cell clusters that prevent the spread of infection by containing the bacteria. The bacteria will spread if your immune response fails. This can lead to extrapulmonary TB.
- The location of infection affects the clinical symptoms of TB. In pulmonary tuberculosis, symptoms may include coughing that is productive or ineffective, fatigue, weight gain, fever and/or night sweats. The symptoms of extrapulmonary TB depend on the location of the infection. They may include lymphadenitis (which can be productive or nonproductive), pleuritis (which is either painful or not), peritonitis (which causes pain), meningitis and bone and joint infections.
- This patient’s primary medical concern is the treatment and diagnosis of TB