Discussion 1 Week 1 – Advance phisiology & pathophysiology
The parathyroid (PTH), and Calcitriol, are responsible for the hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphate. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released by the glands when the calcium level in the blood drops below normal. It stimulates an increased intake of calcium through the gut, and the reabsorption calcium from bone. The circulating level is then brought back to normal. A decreased calcitriol level also increases PTH.
Hypercalcemia is a condition where there are too many calcium ions in the body. This can be caused by an excessive production or secretion of calcitriol or PTH. Hypercalcemia may cause dehydration, nausea and vomiting, as well as confusion/drowsiness, due to the electrolyte balances. Diagnostic tests like serum calcium or imaging studies such as X-rays can confirm the diagnosis. The treatment is usually medications, such as corticosteroids or bisphosphonates that reduce bone resorption and intravenous liquids for hydration.