Walden University| NURS 6501 – Advanced Pathophysiology | Walden University
Two vein and artery conditions that are commonly treated by advanced practice nurses include Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis. CVI happens when veins are damaged, or do not function correctly. Blood pools in the leg. This can cause symptoms like leg swelling and pain. It may also lead to skin changes such as ulcers, varicose or spider veins. CVI, a chronic disease that affects 2-5% the population and more often in women or older people. CVI is associated with a history of CVI in the family, obesity, pregnancy and long periods spent sitting or standing.
DVT is, however, a blood-clot which forms within a deep vein. This usually occurs in the legs. The condition can be a serious medical emergency, as the blood clot may break and move to the lungs. This could lead to an extremely dangerous condition known as pulmonary embolism. DVT symptoms include swelling, warmth, and redness. DVT can be caused by several factors including family history, surgery and prolonged immobilization.
Both CVI and DVT are caused by damage to veins, and impaired blood circulation. CVI occurs when the valves in the veins become damaged or do not function correctly. This causes blood to pool on the legs. It can also cause veins to become varicose and stretch, further reducing blood flow. DVT occurs when a blood clot develops in a deeper vein. This can either partially or fully block the flow of blood. The swelling can also cause inflammation. If the blood clot breaks off, it can travel to the lung.
To diagnose CVI or DVT, nurses must conduct a thorough assessment of the patient’s symptoms and medical history. A physical examination, blood tests and imaging tests like an ultrasound or CT scanner, as well as venography, may be included. Nurses must also rule out other potential conditions that may be causing the patient’s symptoms.
CVI can be treated by modifying your lifestyle, such as exercising, losing weight, or avoiding standing for long periods. To improve blood circulation, compression stockings can be prescribed. If the case is severe, surgery may be needed. Anticoagulation is usually used to treat DVT and prevent the clots from breaking or growing. Some cases may require clot dissolving medication or surgery.
The advanced practice nurse plays a crucial role in diagnosis and treatment for CVIs and DVTs. To provide the best care for their patients, nurses must understand epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical manifestation of these conditions. To prevent colications, early diagnosis and treatment is essential.